How COVID-19 Long Haulers Could Change the U.S. Disability Benefits System


When COVID-19 started spreading within the U.S. in March 2020, McKale Santin was working at a nursing house in Burlington, Vermont. She and her coworkers didn’t but know the way lethal the virus would turn out to be, however she remembers feeling nervous as the primary sufferers bought sick and he or she was requested to look at them with solely a surgical masks, not the extra protecting N95 masks that she wore to check for situations like tuberculosis.

One day, a affected person pulled down her personal masks to sneeze whereas Santin was conducting a respiratory evaluation. Soon after, the lady turned one in every of Vermont’s first folks to die from COVID-19—and Santin fell sick. The 33-year-old nurse developed a deep, burning cough, and a fever so intense she would sweat by means of her mattress sheets for weeks.
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Sixteen months later, she remains to be affected by debilitating signs. Formerly a aggressive bicycle owner and rock climber, Santin now has a troublesome time climbing the steps to her condo, always feels fatigued, usually loses her steadiness resulting from numbness in her ft, has swollen joints, and experiences mind fog. “So a lot in my life is totally different now,” she says. “It’s actually gradual progress. It nearly looks like studying learn how to work your physique once more.”

Santin is one in every of a rising variety of so-called long-haulers—folks whose signs linger many weeks or months after their preliminary case of COVID-19. Researchers estimate between 10% and 30% of COVID-19 sufferers develop long-term signs, although these can range extensively of their severity and the way or after they seem. The U.S. National Institutes of Health has launched an initiative to check “Long COVID,” post-COVID clinics have popped up across the nation and assist teams are serving to sufferers share their experiences. But for some long-haulers, the persistent signs have prevented them from returning to work full-time or in any respect, in order that they’re turning to a authorities system that’s supposed to assist: Social Security incapacity advantages.

While it’s not clear exactly what number of new folks will want these advantages, if 10% of the 34 million Americans who’ve had COVID-19 utilized for incapacity, that may imply 3.four million candidates—which doesn’t embrace spouses or youngsters who may be eligible as effectively. Even if only a fraction of these long-haulers or their households apply for incapacity insurance coverage, it might overwhelm the system, which presently helps 8.1 million disabled staff and 1.four million of their members of the family.

It’s already a susceptible second for the Social Security Administration (SSA). After successive administrations have ignored the looming retirement belief fund points, the SSA has seen its price range lower dramatically within the final 10 years, at the same time as its variety of beneficiaries grew by 22%. It has closed 67 workplaces across the nation since 2010 and shrunk its name heart workers, leading to extra busy indicators, longer wait instances and fewer calls answered in line with a report by the SSA Inspector General in May 2020.

Even in regular instances, the method for getting incapacity advantages is extraordinarily stringent and exhausting to navigate, advocates say. But the system is especially ill-equipped to deal with COVID long-haulers, who expertise a variety of signs that defy simple documentation and sometimes evolve in methods medical suppliers don’t but perceive.

With the primary long-haulers already in search of assist, incapacity advocates are hoping that as an alternative of tens of millions of sick Americans getting stymied by paperwork and a struggling company getting pushed to its breaking level, this generally is a second for reform. Advocates are urging the Social Security Administration to organize for a coming wave of candidates, replace its insurance policies and problem steering associated to COVID-19 to higher serve this mysterious and struggling inhabitants.

“COVID lengthy haulers signify the biggest inflow of recent entrants to the incapacity group in fashionable historical past,” says Rebecca Vallas, a senior fellow at The Century Foundation and a former incapacity lawyer. “There have been just a few key moments in historical past, and that is one in every of them, the place now we have not solely the chance however the pressing crucial, to get up and understand which insurance policies are extremely lengthy overdue for change.”

Courtesy McKale SantinNurse McKale Santin receives her Covid-19 vaccination.

‘No two sufferers are the identical

Last summer season, Santin tried to return to work, first at a reminiscence care facility after which in a major care follow. But she was nonetheless fatigued, dropping steadiness and unable to operate like she might earlier than. So when she needed to cease working resulting from her well being this spring, her docs steered she apply for Social Security incapacity advantages.

Social Security Disability Insurance is meant to be there for Americans who’ve paid into it, defending them from the danger that each individual faces of an surprising harm or illness that forestalls them from working. But the system is notoriously advanced. The U.S. has a number of the most stringent eligibility standards for incapacity advantages amongst nations with superior economies, in line with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The software is prolonged and may take months to finish. Getting accredited usually requires a number of appeals, and ready for every listening to can take months by itself. Even then, fewer than 4 in 10 candidates are granted advantages. “As somebody with mind fog, if I didn’t have the reference to a social employee and the case supervisor to assist me, I wouldn’t be capable of full the types,” Santin says.

The laborious types and appeals course of arent the one impediments. To qualify for incapacity advantages from the SSA, a person should present they’ve an impairment that forestalls them from “substantial, gainful exercise” that’s anticipated to final at the very least 12 months or outcome of their loss of life. But lengthy haulers usually don’t have the medical proof wanted to show this, since a lot of them have barely been sick for 12 months and have the sorts of signs—fatigue, continual ache, mind fog—which might be troublesome to seize with conventional screening instruments, blood checks or imaging. Some signs can seem months after the preliminary an infection, and docs are nonetheless attempting to determine what causes them and the way lengthy they’ll final. “No two sufferers are the identical,” says Dr. Noah Greenspan, a doctor who began a long-haul therapy clinic in New York early within the pandemic. “So lots of people are having issue getting the best diagnostic checks, after which even getting care.”

Last June, Democratic Representatives John Larson of Connecticut, chair of the House Ways and Means Social Security Subcommittee, and Danny Davis of Illinois, chair of the Worker and Family Subcommittee, urged the Social Security Administration to work with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) to look at the long-term impression of COVID-19 on folks’s potential to work. A spokesperson for the company says it has been “repeatedly consulting” with NASEM “all through the pandemic” and heard from specialists on COVID-19 at a repeatedly scheduled National Disability Forum on Nov. 18. The spokesperson says SSA can consider COVID lengthy haulers underneath its present guidelines, however, “Researchers are nonetheless studying concerning the illness and we’ll proceed to take a look at our insurance policies as analysis evolves.”

In the meantime, advantages purposes can languish for greater than a yr whereas the candidates battle to reside and pay their payments in uncertainty. If they attempt to work throughout this time, many fear that effort can be utilized towards them. Wait instances for hearings range by workplace however might be as much as 16 months in some components of the nation, in line with SSA knowledge. The backlog had been declining earlier than the pandemic, however with pent-up demand from the final yr and the possible inflow of lengthy haulers, wait instances are anticipated to rise once more.

“It is a tremendously troublesome time for claimants,” says Stacy Cloyd, director of coverage and administrative advocacy on the National Organization of Social Security Claimants’ Representatives. “People typically lose their houses. People see their well being decline, each due to the psychological stress and due to an absence of entry to well being care throughout that point. It is an amazing quantity of stress on incapacity claimants and on their households.”

Starting to alter

Long COVID sufferers might spur modifications to the system, as their plight has given extra urgency to advocates’ calls for.

Stop the Wait, a coalition of incapacity and ageing teams, is asking on Congress to eradicate official ready durations constructed into the Social Security Disability Insurance program. After finishing the appliance course of, folks have to attend 5 months for any advantages to start and two years to obtain Medicare protection. “It’s a devastation each for the people and their households and for our financial system, the place folks don’t have any cash coming in, they’ll’t spend, they’ll’t contribute to the financial system,” says Eve Hill, a incapacity lawyer and lead organizer of the marketing campaign. It may also push folks onto different authorities applications equivalent to Medicaid, which states have to assist pay for whereas the individual is ready for his or her federal advantages.

In 2019, Democratic Sen. Bob Casey of Pennsylvania and Democratic Rep. Lloyd Doggett of Texas launched a bipartisan effort to do away with the ready durations. The payments weren’t voted on then, however a spokesperson for Casey’s workplace stated he plans to re-introduce the laws this yr. Since then, President Joe Biden included the problem in his incapacity plan on the marketing campaign path, Congress eradicated the ready durations for folks with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the Stop the Wait marketing campaign wrote an open letter asking Congress to take action for others with disabilities too.

It’s not simply ready durations gaining consideration in Washington. Groups just like the Long COVID Alliance, Survivor Corps and Body Politic have come collectively to be taught from how the federal government has dealt with different illnesses equivalent to fibromyalgia and continual fatigue syndrome and advocate for brand spanking new investments in analysis on lengthy COVID. In April, the Senate Finance Committee held a listening to to look at the Social Security Administration’s customer support through the pandemic, and Senators from each events stated the company wanted to do extra to simplify its purposes, attain out to susceptible communities and assist eligible folks apply for the advantages. To this finish, Democratic Sen. Sherrod Brown of Ohio is engaged on laws that may create a navigator program to assist folks apply for objects like incapacity advantages or the Child Tax Credit, just like the one used underneath the Affordable Care Act to attach folks to medical health insurance.

But such enhancements depend on the Social Security Administration having sufficient funding to course of claims correctly. Biden’s 2022 price range request included a 10% enhance to SSA funding, however that’s nonetheless lower than the company itself stated it must do its job successfully, notes Kathleen Romig, a senior analyst on the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities who used to work on the SSA. “Even if 100% of those [long COVID] claims are denied, you continue to should resolve them. And that’s actually time consuming. And so it’s going to take plenty of workers time. And it’s going to take some huge cash. As a outcome, it’s going to place much more pressure on this company that’s already underneath plenty of pressure,” she says.

However, Romig additionally notes that instances of disaster are sometimes when authorities applications get created or overhauled. After all, Social Security was created as a part of the New Deal, the daring financial agenda President Franklin D. Roosevelt enacted as a manner out of the Great Depression. “Social Security is one thing that was battle examined, partly as a result of it was born out of such an identical circumstance,” she says. “Advocates see SSA’s most important job now as ensuring folks have entry to advantages after a interval of some important obstacles to entry.”

There are indicators Biden could agree with that mission. He not too long ago fired the Trump-appointed Social Security Commissioner Andrew Saul, who clashed with the company’s staff throughout his tenure and had proposed a bunch of extra stringent guidelines for incapacity beneficiaries. “I anticipate that with President Biden’s current elimination of former Commissioner Andrew Saul and appointment of Acting Commissioner Kilolo Kijakazi, SSA will likely be rededicating itself to making sure that folks can entry the Social Security advantages they’ve earned and are eligible for, together with by correctly evaluating the long-term results of COVID-19 on the flexibility to work,” Rep. Larson stated in a press release to TIME.

There could also be some progress in Washington, however in Vermont, Santin is aware of she nonetheless has an extended highway forward. She is has been adapting to her new, extra circumscribed life, however she says she feels fortunate to have the assist system of her docs and case managers and is taking issues at some point at a time. “It’s wild,” she says, “the quantity of labor someone with disabilities must put into the appliance for incapacity.”


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