In a nationwide memorial handle at Oslo Cathedral simply two days after the assaults, Stoltenberg known as for “more democracy, more openness, and more humanity.”
Speaking with CNN’s “Amanpour” present in an interview to mark the anniversary, Stoltenberg — now NATO secretary-general — repeated that message and applauded the best way Norwegians had responded. But, he warned, the “hatred is still out there.”
The creator of one of many reviews, Dr. Jacob Aasland Ravndal, informed CNN it appeared extra restricted than media protection would counsel. “There was of course a lot of concern after the attacks that they would generate copycat attacks,” he stated. But “somewhat surprisingly,” he stated, there have not been many clear-cut circumstances of direct inspiration from Breivik.
But though Tarrant claimed to have been impressed by Breivik, investigators discovered that he had began his planning a while earlier than he learn Breivik’s manifesto. “So even there, you can question how much of an impact Breivik had,” Ravndal stated. Tarrant’s personal manifesto may be very completely different from Breivik’s, together with in its politics, he added.
The Counter Extremism Project (CEP), an NGO that combats extremist teams, stated in a press release Thursday that survivors of Breivik’s assaults had voiced concern relating to his “status as an inspirational figure among far-right extremists.”
“[This status] underlines the need for greater action to target the dissemination of known extremist propaganda with clear links to violence on online platforms,” stated David Ibsen, CEP government director. “The continued presence of far-right views online, along with greater exposure to extremist content over the course of the Covid-19 pandemic, is of particular concern.”
According to Ravndal, analysis signifies that inside Norway the far proper has not gained a lot attraction general for the reason that assaults and has been unable to end up supporters in any numbers on the streets.
“Of course in Norway, as everywhere else, online activity has grown over these 10 years,” he stated. “But whether that reflects a substantial increase of far-right activity or simply mirrors the growth of social media on the internet, that’s very difficult to say.”
Breivik, in the meantime, had set off by automobile on the 25-mile journey to Utoya Island, the place a Labour Party summer season youth camp was going down. Posing as a police officer who was checking on safety following the Oslo assault, he caught a ferry to the island and carried out a taking pictures spree during which 69 individuals died — most of them youngsters. Many others had been severely wounded.
According to Professor Matthew Feldman, director of the UK-based Centre for Analysis of the Radical Right (CARR), Breivik’s doc can nonetheless “easily” be discovered within the darker reaches of the web regardless of efforts to take away it.
That manifesto was “paradigmatic,” Feldman stated, “not just because it showed what one individual can do in terms of the horrific loss of life” but additionally in its focusing on of Muslims and what Breivik known as “cultural Marxism.”
Despite this backdrop, Breivik’s actions and manifesto have gained restricted traction, in accordance with Ravndal.
His evaluation for C-REX signifies that “in the beginning the far-right across the board rejected him,” stated Ravndal. An on-line assist community that was established for Breivik later collapsed. It was solely with the emergence of on-line boards like 4chan and 8chan that Breivik as soon as once more began to get optimistic mentions, Ravndal stated.
“The main finding, all in all, both when it comes to tactics but also for political, ideological support, is that it’s been surprisingly little,” he stated. “It’s been possible to find support, but fortunately less than one might have worried about initially considering the high death toll and all the attention these attacks got globally.”
Today, the controversy has shifted in elements of Norwegian society to broader ideological questions, Ravndal stated.
Some — significantly within the youth wing of the Labour Party — really feel that there has not been a reckoning with the nation’s far-right motion, the largest participant during which is the populist, right-wing Progress Party, he stated.
“We must all stand together against violent extremism — regardless of whether it comes from the ‘far right’, ‘far left’ or extreme interpretations of religion,” the assertion stated. “Only the extremists will win if we exclude each other from the grief after July 22 and weaken the unity around the struggle for democracy, freedom of expression and equality.”
Labour has promised that if it wins energy in elections this September, it is going to arrange a brand new fee to take a look at radicalization.
There can be debate about whether or not the assault needs to be interpreted as an assault on Norwegian society as a complete, or as an assault on the Labour Party particularly, Ravndal stated. “Today, some within the Labour Party perhaps feel that that part of the story has been neglected a bit.”
Feldman considers that Norway’s response was formed by the sense that the perpetrator was “one of their own,” as had been the victims, and not using a sense of “otherness” to pressure a extra multicultural response.
“Norway essentially asked itself this question, and it’s a very valid one … ‘How did Norwegian society produce such a monster?'” he stated. “It’s a very inward-looking question.”
By distinction, he stated, New Zealand took a way more international method because it checked out what led as much as the Christchurch assaults. This was partly as a result of Tarrant, an Australian, had focused worshipers at mosques, lots of whom had been foreign-born.
He hopes to win additional commitments to counter extremist content material on-line at an occasion he’s concerned with in Bergen, Norway, subsequent month.
Breivik’s ideology ‘remains to be on the market’
Speaking to CNN earlier this month, Stoltenberg spoke of the shock he felt as he realized the dimensions of the horrors perpetrated by Breivik — and the non-public disappointment it introduced, since he knew lots of the victims.
He additionally stood by the message he delivered to the nation because it was nonetheless reeling from the July 22 assaults.
“I still believe that our answer was the right one,” Stoltenberg informed CNN. “[Breivik] wanted to attack our free, open democratic societies. So the best response is more openness, more democracy, because then we prove that he is not winning, we are winning.
“He demonstrated hatred. The greatest response to hatred is love. So … I actually welcomed the robust message from the individuals of Norway, as (we) have seen additionally in lots of different international locations which have been attacked, that we arise for our values.”
That notwithstanding, Stoltenberg does not believe that Breivik has been entirely defeated.
“He is convicted, he’s in jail. But his ideology, that’s nonetheless on the market. And due to this fact we have to proceed — I feel we by no means can be within the place the place we will say that we’ve got gained the struggle, we will shut the chapter preventing in opposition to extremism.”
Since 2011, Norway has implemented measures to protect — as far as possible — against such attacks in the future, Stoltenberg said. And, he added, Brevik — whose 21-year sentence could be extended in the future if he still poses a threat — has lost in one key respect.
“We have to grasp that the aim of this assault was to vary Norway basically. And … sure, in fact, this can be a part of Norway’s historical past,” he said. “It can be a part of who we’re so long as we exist. But basically, it has not modified who we’re.”
CNN’s Frederik Pleitgen contributed to this report.